Personal Pronouns, Reflexive Pronouns, Relative Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

PRONOUNS REPLACE NOUNS. They are NOT a type of noun.

1.    Personal pronouns as the subject of the verb

  Singular Plural
1st I we
2nd you (thou) you
3rd he, she, it they

Example: Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837. She reigned until 1901

To use these forms as the object of a verb (e.g. You gave Alan and I a surprise) is non-Standard.

2.    Personal pronouns as the object of a verb

  Singular Plural
1st me us
2nd you (thee) you (ye)
3rd him, her, it them

Example: Are you receiving me?

To use these forms as the subject of a verb (e.g. Alison and me saw it) is non-Standard.

3.    Reflexive pronouns

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS ARE USED WHEN THE OBJECT OF THE VERB IS THE SAME AS THE SUBJECT.
IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR EMPHASIS.

  Singular Plural
1st myself ourselves
2nd yourself yourselves
3rd himself, herself, itself themselves

Examples: John spilled coffee on himself. I wouldn't do that to myself. They had only themselves to blame.

To use these forms as the subject of a verb (e.g. David and myself will see to it. ) or as the object where the subject is different (e.g. Listen to Valerie and myself) is non-Standard.

4. Relative pronouns

RELATIVE PRONOUNS JOIN A RELATIVE CLAUSE TO THE MAIN CLAUSE.

a) Human

Subject who
Direct object whom
Possessive whose
Indirect object to whom

Examples: You're the one WHO told me. That is the person WHOM I saw. Do you know WHOSE car that is? They didn't know TO WHOM it belonged.

b) Non-Human

WHICH and THAT. They always retain the same form in all cases. THAT is generally regarded as slightly less formal than WHICH.

Examples: He decided WHICH horse to back. That was the one THAT he picked.

5. Possessive pronouns

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS REPLACE A NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE. Since they are pronouns, not nouns, they DO NOT TAKE AN APOSTROPHE!

  Singular Plural
1st mine ours
2nd yours (thine) yours
3rd his, hers, its theirs

Examples: That folder is yours. This one is mine. Theirs is over there.

6. Possessive adjectives

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES ALWAYS GO BEFORE NOUNS (THEY ARE NOT PRONOUNS - THEY JUST LOOK LIKE THEM!)

  Singular Plural
1st my our
2nd your (thy) your
3rd his, her, its their

Example: They tore their hair. I put your hat on the table. His car is in the garage.
Note: The cat had its tail docked. NOT The cat had
it's tail docked. Lose the apostrophe! Possessive adjectives don't have an apostrophe in 3rd person singular form.

CD Selwyn-Jones 2003