F Film
M Music
P Print (newspapers and magazines)
R Radio
TV Television and video

Academy ratio [F] The standard frame Aspect ratio adopted by Hollywood of 4:3, or 1.33:1, width to height.
Actuality [R] Sound, recorded or transmitted, of real events that are taking place outside the studio, such as an interview.
Advertising ratio [P] The proportion of a newspaper or magazine taken up by adverts, as opposed to stories and pictures.
Advertorial [P] An advertising feature about products, written like a news story and usually accompanied by pictures.
AM (Amplitude modulation) [R] Long and medium wave frequencies on which radio stations are received.
Anamorphic lens [F] A projection lens used to produce Widescreen images at the cinema.
Anchor [TV] The presenter of a programme, so-called because he or she holds the show together.
Anchorage [P TV] The use of words in a caption or commentary to hold or limit the meaning of an image.
Animation [F] Method of making drawings or models move on screen, by shooting still images a few frames at a time.
A&R (Artists and repertoire) [M] The department of a music company responsible for discovering new acts and looking after the musicians.
Aspect ratio [F TV] The relationship between the width and height of a film or TV image. See Academy ratio and Widescreen.
Astra [TV] The satellite positioned at 19.2 degrees east that carries all the Sky channels.
Audience fragmentation [F M P R TV] The identification and splitting off of particular audiences by media producers.
Audience participation [F M P R TV] Getting the audience involved in the media.
Audience positioning [F M P R TV] The relationship between the audience and the media product. How the media tries to determine the response of an audience to its products.
Audio [F M R TV] Sound, either as part of a Broadcast or as a Soundtrack.
Auteur [F] The author of a film. The person who gives a film its special identity or style.
Autocue [TV] A screen that displays what the presenter has to say during the broadcast.
Back announcement [R] Information about an item given by a presenter after it has been broadcast.
Backlighting [F TV] Lighting placed behind a subject to create a silhouette.
BARB (Broadcasters' Audience Research Board) [TV] The organization that collects and publishes weekly audience figures or ratings.
Best boy [F] The assistant to the Gaffer.
Big close-up (BCU) [F TV] A shot that shows the face filling the frame, good for expressing strong emotions.
Bollywood [F] The nickname of the Indian film industry (a mixture of 'Bombay' and 'Hollywood').
Boom [F R TV] A long pole on which a microphone is placed in order to pick up sound.
British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) [F] The organization that issues certificates to films and videos, stating whether they are suitable for children or young people to watch.
Broadcasting Standards Commission [R TV] The organization set up by Parliament to investigate complaints about taste and decency on TV, video and radio.
Broadsheet [P] A newspaper printed on sheets of paper 116.83 x 81.28 cm (46 x 32 inches). See also Tabloid.
Bulletin controller [R TV] The person responsible for the film reports and still photographs needed for the broadcast.
Bulletin producer [R TV] The person who makes sure that the bulletins run exactly to time.
Bulletin script [TV] A typed script of the words that appear on the Autocue, along with other information about the bulletin.
By-line [P] Information giving the name of the person who wrote an article.
Camera script [F TV] A script on which camera angles and shots have been planned.
Cardioid [F R TV] A radio that picks up sound from directly in front and to the sides.
Cart machine [R] A machine that records and plays short sound recordings such as Jingles and Trails.
Cassette tape [R] A tape system in which the tape is enclosed in a plastic cover and played on a cassette player.
Catch-line [P R] A word used to identify a story.
Cathode ray tube [TV] A tube in a TV set that produces the picture on screen.
CB radio (Citizen's band radio) [R] System used by amateurs to communicate with each other.
CD (Compact disc) [M R TV] Musical or video recording in digital form impressed onto a plastic disc.
CD-ROM (Compact Disc-Read Only Memory) Information in the form of video, sound or text, stored on a CD that is read by a computer using a laser.
Censorship [F M P R TV] The control of what the media reproduces by governments or other agencies, on either moral or political grounds.
Channel [TV] A fixed band of frequencies on which transmission can be made.
Chief sub-editor [P] A senior journalist with design and layout skills. He or she decides which stories will go on each Page scheme.
Chroma key [TV] A device that allows an image to be filmed in front of a background that has been produced elsewhere.
Cinemascope [F] A Widescreen film image.
Cinerama [F] A Widescreen process using three projectors to produce an image on a curved screen.
Circulation [P] The number of copies that a newspaper or magazine sells.
Clapperboard [F TV] A board on which details of each Take are given, and which is clapped in order to synchronize sound and vision.
Classified adverts [P] Small adverts in columns, arranged into categories, e.g. Situations Vacant, usually placed in newspapers by individuals
Cliff-hanger [P R TV] A situation that keeps the audience guessing what will happen in the next episode of a programme or story.
Close-up (CU) [F TV] A shot in which only a subject's head and shoulders are shown.
Colour separation [P] A printing process where pages are printed using only four colours: black, yellow, red (or magenta) and blue (or cyan). All the colours needed to produce a full-colour photograph are made by mixing different sized dots of these four basic colours.
Code [F M P R TV] An element or convention through which the media communicates meaning to us because we have learned how to read it.
Community radio [R] A station serving a small community, e.g. a university campus.
Connotation [F P R TV] The secondary, associated or additional meaning that a Sign carries in addition to its everyday meaning. See also Denotation.
Context [F M P R TV] Where we consume media products.
Continuity [F TV] Ensuring that each shot in a film or TV programme has details that match.
Convention [F M P R TV] The accepted, or apparently natural, way of constructing a media text, which familiarity will have made an audience come to expect.
Copy [P] 1. A story written by a journalist. 2. Words written by an advertising agency to sell a product.
Crane [F TV] A shot from above, using a device of the same name.
Crash edit [TV] Editing video footage on domestic VHS machines by using the pause facilities.
Credits [F M R TV] Details of the people involved in the making of the media product.
Crop [P] To cut down a photographic image, usually to get rid of unwanted detail.
Crosshead [P] A word used to separate paragraphs in a newspaper or magazine story.
Cross-over artist [M] An artist who appeals to music consumers of several different types.
Cue [R TV] To find the beginning of a piece of music, film or tape and prepare it for transmission.
Cue sheet [R] An introduction to a Package, which is written by the reporter for the presenter of a radio programme to read out.
Cut 1. [F TV] An edit in which two segments are joined together by simply switching from one to the other. 2. [F] The edited version of a film. 3. [P] To reduce the length of a story.
Cut-away [F TV] A shot inserted into a scene that shows action taking place somewhere else.
DAT (Digital audio tape) [M R] Tape used to store Digital recordings of a high quality.
Deep focus [F] A cinematic technique whereby objects are kept in focus in both foreground and background.
Delay system [R] A system to prevent obscenities being broadcast on live radio, by delaying transmission by several seconds.
Denotation [F M P R TV] The everyday or commonsense meaning of a Sign. See also Connotation.
Depth of field [F TV] The distance in an image over which images remain in sharp focus.
Desk-top publishing (DTP) [P] Software packages that enable print publications of a professional quality to be designed on a personal computer.
Digital broadcasting [R TV] A technique of transmitting signals digitally to produce better reception and to allow greater use of capacity by transmitters.
Digital recording [M] A form of recording that changes sound into a signal of on and off electrical impulses. It produces better sound quality than traditional recording techniques.
Direct inputting [P] Using a computer terminal to key in Copy ready for subbing and typesetting.
Director [F TV] The person responsible for the artistic interpretation of a film or programme.
Display advert [P] An advert for a product, with photographs and graphics, that is placed in a newspaper or magazine by a business.
Dissolve [F TV] An editing technique in which one image or scene fades into another.
Dolby [F M R TV] A technique in sound recording that helps cut out background noise and distortion.
Dolby Surround [F R TV] A type of Surround sound.
Dolly [F TV] A wheel on which a camera can be mounted to allow it to move around a set.
Double heading [R TV] The use of two presenters on a programme such as a news bulletin.
Dual keying [P] A system in which Copy was first typed by a journalist and then typed again into a linotype machine by a compositor.
Dub [R TV] To copy from one tape to another.
Editor 1. [P R TV] The person ultimately responsible for the content of a newspaper, magazine or news programme. 2. [F TV] The person who puts together a film or TV programme from the footage shot.
Elaboration [P] The paragraphs that follow the Intro of a story, which tell readers more about it.
E.N.G. (Electronic news gathering) [TV] A report from the scene on video.
Establishing shot [F TV] A shot that shows the characters in a location, to let the audience know where they are and how they are situated.
Establishing two shot See Two shot.
Event movie [F] A Btockbuster film that is accompanied by a large amount of Hype.
Exciter lamp [F] A light in a projector that enables the optical soundtrack to be read.
Exposure [F TV] The amount of light allowed to enter by a camera.
Fade [F TV] An editing technique in which an image disappears gradually, leaving the screen blank.
Fader [R] A slider on a radio desk that alters the volume of a microphone or other sound source.
Fading up [F TV] A technique in which an image slowly appears from a blank screen.
Fanzine [P] A low-budget publication produced by enthusiasts about their particular area of interest, such as a band or a football team.
Feature [P] An article that takes an in-depth look at a topic or issue.
Feature film [F] A full-length film, often the main film, usually fictional.
Feed [R TV] Transmission of a programme or information, usually to or from headquarters.
Feedback 1. [M R TV] A high-pitched sound created by placing a mike too close to a speaker. 2. [P R TV] Responses from an audience about an issue or programme.
Fibre optic [R TV] Transmission of a Signa/ down a thin cable by means of light beams.
Fill [P] A story of no more than one or two paragraphs, used to fill a gap on a page.
Film gauge [F] The size or width of film, e.g. 35 mm or 16 mm
Final cut [F] The last version of an edited film prior to release. See Cut.
First run [F] The first showing of a film, usually in selected London cinemas.
Flashback [F TV] A narrative device in which a character thinks back to a previous event, which is shown on screen.
Flat plan [P] A plan of a magazine that shows every page and what will appear on it.
Floppy disc [P R TV] A means by which information from a computer can be stored in a portable form.
FM (Frequency modulation) [R] A system of transmitting high frequency signals to give good quality sound reproduction.
Focus [F P TV] To make sure that the important images are sharp.
Focus puller [F] An assistant camera operator, part of whose job is to operate the focus on the camera.
Footage [F TV] Film or video tape that has been shot.
Footprint [R TV] The area over which a satellite transmission can be received.
Format [R TV] The way in which a programme is put together or constructed, e.g. as a studio discussion.
Fps (Frames per second) [F] The unit of measurement of the speed at which a film is projected or shot.
Fragmentation [F M P R TV] See Market fragmentation and Audience fragmentation.
Frame [F TV] The way the camera is used to place an image within its field of view.
Freeze-frame [F TV] Stopping the action and creating a still image, e.g. when athletes cross the winning line.
Frequency [R] The position on the dial of a radio station on a scale that uses units called hertz to measure the cycles per second at which the station is broadcast.
Gaffer [F] The person in charge of the electrics and lighting on a film set.
Gap in the market [F M P R TV] An area that is not catered for by any products. See also Market saturation.
Gate [F] The part of a camera or projector in front of the lens, through which the film passes.
Gauge [F] The size or width of celluloid on which a film is shot, e.g. 35 mm
General release [F] The Exhibition of a film that is shown in cinemas across the country.
Generation [TV] The number of times a tape has been copied.
Genre [F M P R TV] The type or category of a film,
programme or other media text. See Sub-genre.
Gold (Classic gold) [R TV] A type of broadcast in which music or programmes from a previous era are featured.
Grip [F] Stagehand. See also Key grip.
Gross [F] The total revenue of a film from Box office and Spin-offs.
Hammocking [TV] Placing a new or less appealing programme between two successful shows in order to attract an audience.
Hand-held [F TV] Using a camera without a tripod.
Hard news [P R TV] News that is important and needs to be reported immediately.
High angle [F TV] A shot taken from above a subject.
Highlight [R TV] Part of an event or programme considered worthy of special attention, e.g. highlights of a football match.
Home pages Documents containing information on the Internet.
Hot-metal printing [P] A kind of printing that was used until the 1960s. Ink was placed onto movable metal type and newsprint was then run over the top of the plates.
Hypodermic model [F M P R TV] The idea that the media injects its consumers with the messages and meanings it chooses and that the audience has no real power to resist.
Ideal viewer/reader [F M P R TV] Someone who is typical of the audience for a particular product.
Ident [R] The identity of a radio station, established, for example, by the use of Jingles.
Image [TV P] A visual representation of something 
Image -analysis [F M P TV] The study of how images are put together, and how the audience takes meaning from them.
Index [F M P R TV] A sign that works by having a link with the concept it represents, e.g. a thermometer is often shown to imply extreme heat or cold
Industry [F M P R TV] The organization that produces media products, e.g. a Hollywood studio or a newspaper proprietor.
Insert [F TV] A shot that is put into a sequence to give a more complete view of what is going on, e.g. someone's reaction to an event or comment
Institution [F M P R TV] An organization that produces media products. It has a system of values, usually apparent in the way in which texts are produced.
Intercut (Cross cut) [F R TV] To present action from two different scenes by shifting from one to the other, to suggest they are happening simultaneously.
Internet A world-wide system of communication between individuals through the use of personal computers.
Intro [P] The first paragraph of a story.
Iris [F TV] A device on a camera that determines how much light passes through the lens.
Item [R TV] A single news story in a bulletin.
Jump cut [F TV] An edit in which action appears to jump in an illogical way.
Key grip [F] Person in charge of the Grips.
Key light [F TV] The main light used to illuminate a scene
Laserdisc [F TV] A high-quality means of reproducing a film on a TV screen, whereby video and sound signals are encoded on reflective discs and read by a laser.
Leader 1. [R] The beginning of a piece of recording tape. 2. [P] The main editorial in a broadsheet newspaper.
Letterbox [TV] A technique whereby Wdescreen films are shown on TV, leaving black spaces at the top and bottom of the screen.
Libel [F P R TV] A law aimed at preventing false and damaging statements about people being published in a permanent form in print and broadcast products.
Library shot [TV] Footage shot by a TV crew, which is then stored in a library to be used as illustration for a news or current affairs story.
Linotype [P] A machine used for composing blocks of text in newspapers, magazines and books.
Lip mike [R TV] A microphone that is held close to the lips to cut out most of the background noise, e.g. at a football match.
Lip sync [F TV] Keeping the sound and the movement of the actors' lips in time with one another.
Live action [F TV] Film or television that involves people as opposed to Animation.
Long shot [F TV] A shot that shows the characters in the distance, with details of their surroundings, before they are seen in Close-up.
Macro lens [F TV] A lens that allows very close-up detail.
Market fragmentation [F M P R TV] The breaking down of the market for media products into small units.
Market saturation [F M P R TV] When a particular part of the market is seen to be completely catered for by products. See also Gap in the market.
Masthead [P] The title of a newspaper on the front page.
Media language [F M P R TV] The means by which the media communicates to us and the forms and conventions by which it does so.
Media text [F M P R TV] Any product of the media designed to be consumed by an audience.
Mediation [F P R TV] The process by which the media represents an event or issue, by intervening and selecting information for the audience.
Medium shot (MS) [F TV] A shot between Close-up and Long shot that gives the character and the surrounding roughly equal amounts of the frame.
Megahertz [R] A measurement of wavelength that stands for one million cycles per second.
Minority audience [F M P R TV] A small audience with an interest in a subject not regarded as popular or widespread.
Mix [F M R TV] To put together sound or images programme or the sounds on a record. See also Remixing.
Monitor [F TV] A TV that allows someone to watch action that is being recorded on screen, to ensure that it looks as it should.
Mono (Monaural, monophonic) [R TV] Sound that is produced through just one channel or speaker. See also Stereo.
Montage [F P TV] The putting together of visual images to form a sequence.
Multi-media Computer technology that allows text, sound, graphic and video images to be combined into one programme.
Multiplex [F] A cinema with several screens.
Nag (News at a glance) [P] A short summary that gives the main points of the news.
Nagra [F] A sound recording machine used in film-making.
Narrative [F M P R TV] The telling of a story or unfolding of a plot that is common to most media texts.
Narrative code [F P R TV] A way of describing the conventions or elements that the audience has come to expect to be included in a story.
Narrowcast [P R TV] Sending a message or information to a small and defined audience, as opposed to broadcasting to a mass audience.
Needle-time [M R] The time used in playing records that a radio statron must pay for.
Negative [F P] An image that has been shot on to film from which a Print or Positive is taken.
News agency [P R TV] A private company that sells stories to the news media. See Wire Service.
News agenda [P R TV] A list, made by the News editor, of stories that should be followed up.
News bulletin [R TV] A short summary of the current main news stories.
News editor [P R TV] Person who assesses the value of news coming in and gives it to reporters.
News list [P R TV] A list with information on events and stories.
News sense [P R TV] A word used by journalists to describe a gut feeling about what makes a good story that will interest readers.
News values [P R TV] Factors that influence whether a story will be selected for coverage.
Nib (News in brief) [P] A one- or two-paragraph story that gives only the basic facts.
NICAM stereo (Near-Instantaneous Companding System) [TV] A technique that allows TVs to broadcast programmes in Stereo sound.
Nine-o'clock watershed [TV] An agreement not to show explicit sex or violence before 9.00 pm, so that parents will know that it is safe to allow their children to watch TV before this time.
OB (Outside broadcast) [R TV] A broadcast from outside the studio, usually of an important news or sporting event.
Offset [P] A system of printing in which the image is transferred to a roller before being printed on to the newsprint itself.
Optical soundtrack [F] A way of putting sound on to a film print so that it can be read by a photoelectric cell.
Out-take [F TV] A scene that is unusable because of technical problems or errors in it.
Overexpose [F] To allow too much light on to a film, spoiling the image.
Package [R TV] A pre-recorded news item or feature provided by a reporter for a programme.
Page lead [P] The main story on a newspaper page, usually the longest story with the biggest headline.
Page scheme [P] A plan of the news pages, drawn up by the advertising department to show where the adverts that have been sold on the page are placed.
Pan and scan [F TV] Technique of selecting part of a Widescreen image to make it fit onto a standard TV screen.
Pan shot [F TV] A shot in which the camera moves horizontally, either following a piece of action or shifting across from one image to another, as though making a survey of a scene.
Parallel action [F TV] A technique in which the action is edited to show two separate events taking place at the same time.
Pay-per-view [TV] A system used by subscription channels in which the audience pays to see specific programmes, such as films or sport.
Phototypesetting [P] A technique in which stories are typed on computers and then printed onto bromide paper. This paper is then cut to size and pasted onto page plans, which are photographed.
Pirate radio (Free radio) [R] Stations that are not licensed.
Playlist [M R] A list of records that the radio station is committed to playing.
Point-of-view shot [F TV] A shot that shows the audience exactly what a particular character sees.
Positive [F P] Photographic image or film that has the colours and tones of the original.
Post-production [F TV] The editing of a film or TV programme.
Pre-production [F TV] The planning stage of a film or TV programme.
Press Association (PA) [P R TV] An agency that supplies news to organizations such as newspapers.
Prime time [TV] Peak viewing time, usually the evening.
Print [F] A Positive copy of a film.
Producer 1. [F TV] The person responsible for initiating, organizing and financing a venture. 2. [R] The person responsible for the production of a radio programme. 3. [M] Someone who oversees a recording in the recording studio and gives it a particular 'feel'.
Product placement [F TV] A form of Sponsorship in which advertisers pay the producers of films to have characters use their products.
Profit margin [F M P R TV] The difference between what a media product costs to produce and what it costs to buy.
PRS (Performing Rights Society) [M] Organization that looks after the interests of musicians and artists and collects royalties for work that is broadcast.
Public service broadcasting (PSB) [R TV] Broadcasting that is funded by the taxpayer, as opposed to commercial broadcasting, which relies on advertising revenue.
Qualitative data [F M P R TV] Information on people's opinions about media products, e.g. whether they like them and why.
Quantitative data [F M P R TV] Information in the form of numbers, such as how many people watched a particular programme or read a specific magazine.
Quintrophonic sound [F] Sound system amplified
through five speakers, three in front of the audience and two behind them.
Rate card [P] A list of the advertising fees charged by the publication.
Ratings [R TV] The number of viewers or listeners that a programme attracts.
RDS (Radio'Data System) [R] A tuning system that allows the station that is playing on a radio to be identified by showing its name on a digital display.
Reaction shot [F TV] An image showing a character's response to a piece of action or dialogue.
Reader [F M P R TV] A member of the audience, especially someone who is actively responding to the Media text.
Rear projection [F] A technique of filming an image projected behind another image to suggest that action is happening on location.
Reel-to-reel [R] An open-reel tape recorder/player, as opposed to a cassette player.
Remixing [M] Combining the separate tracks of a recording in a different way to produce a different sound to the original Mix.
Representation [F M P R TV] The act of communicating by using symbols to stand for things.
Rolling news station [TV] A channel that broadcasts nothing but news 24 hours a day.
Rotary press [P] A means of printing newspapers and magazines by using a cylindrical drum.
Royalties [M] Fees paid to an artist if one of their songs is broadcast or recorded by another artist.
Running order [R TV] A sheet that lists each news item in the order in which it will appear in the Broadcast.
Run-of-paper advertising [P] An advert in a newspaper, whose position is left up to the newspaper.
Rushes [F] The film shot in one day.
Sampling [M] A technique in which sounds from existing recordings are used to make new ones.
Satellite broadcasting [TV] The use of satellites to bounce a signal back to earth to be received by a dish.
Scale [P] To reduce the size of an image without cutting out any detail.
Scan [P] To make an electronic copy of an image.
Screenplay [F] The script for a film.
Serial drama [TV] The technical name for Soap opera.
Sexism [F M P R TV] Prejudice against a person based on their gender.
SFX [F TV] Special effects or devices used to create particular visual illusions, e.g. battles in space or animated characters talking to actors.
Short 1. [F] A film of less than feature length. 2. [P] A story usually between three and eight paragraphs in length.
Shot [TV] A single image taken by a camera. See also Long shot. Medium shot, Ctose-up, Big close-up, Point-of-view shot, Pan shot and Zoom.
Showcase concert [M] A gig intended to show record companies the quality of a band.
Shutter [F TV] A mechanism that opens and closes as film moves behind the camera's lens.
Sign [F M P R TV] A word or image that is used to represent an object or idea.
Signal [R TV] An electronically coded message that is sent out from a source, such as a radio transmitter, to be picked up by a receiver, such as a radio.
Sitcom [TV] A Genre of programme that relies for its comedy on a particular situation, e.g. students living together in a flat.
Slide [TV] A still photograph of a person, symbol or scene.
Slot [R TV] A time period on a TV or radio schedule.
Soap opera [R TV] A Serial drama that is broadcast in frequent episodes.
Soft focus [F TV] The device of shooting the subject a little out of focus to create a specific effect, usually to do with nostalgia, an attractive female star or dreams.
Soundbite [R TV] A phrase that is memorable and can be easily absorbed into a news report. Much favoured by politicians.
Sound effects [F R TV] Additional sounds other than dialogue or music, designed to add atmosphere and realism to a piece.
Sound engineer [M] A technician who sets up and operates the recording studio.
Soundtrack [F TV] The Audio, as opposed to the visual, element of a film or programme, which is usually a mix of dialogue, music and effects.
Splash [P] The main story on the front page of a newspaper or magazine.
Splice IF R] To join two pieces of film or tape.
Split screen [F TV] A technique in which two or more images are shown at once on the screen.
Sponsorship {F IVI P R TV] A form of advertising in which advertisers pay to have their name shown or read in association with a media product.
Staff writer [P] A journalist who is employed to work on one particular newspaper or magazine.
Steadicam [F TV] A device that allows a camera operator to move with the camera without jolting or shaking it.
Stereo (Stereophonic) [F R TV] Sound reproduction simultaneously through two separate channels. See also Mono.
Stereotyping [F P R TV] Representation of people or groups of people by a few characteristics.
Still [F TV] A static image.
Storyboard [F TV] A mock-up of how a sequence will look when it has been filmed.
Style mag [P] A magazine dealing with fashion in things such as dress, interior design or motoring.
Sub-editor [P] A person responsible for checking a journalist's copy, deciding its position in a newspaper or magazine and designing the page on which it is to appear.
Sub-genre [F M P R TV] A Genre within a genre.
Support [P] Usually the second longest story on a newspaper page, 'supporting' the main story.
Surround sound [F R TV] A technique using a number of speakers to improve the sound quality of films and radio and TV programmes.
Sync [F TV] When sound and image are linked properly together in time.
Tabloid [P] A newspaper half the size of a Broadsheet, with pages measuring 58.42 x 40.64 cm (23 x 16 inches).
Tail [R] The end of a piece of tape.
Take [F TV] A single recording or filming of a scene. Several takes may be needed to get the scene right.
Talkback [R TV] A system of communication used off-air between the studio and the production team.
Talking head [TV] A shot of a person talking to the camera.
Technical code [F M P R TV] The conventions of producing a media text that are determined by the equipment used and what it is capable of doing, e.g. different camera angles or zooms.
Teletext [TV] A film and information service broadcast as a separate signal on TV channels, which can be received by a TV set with a special decoder.
Terrestrial television [TV] Television stations whose signals are transmitted and received without the use of satellite technology,
Tilt [F TV] Camera movement in a vertical direction.
Time lapse [F TV] A technique of filming single frames of action at delayed intervals and replaying them at normal speed, to speed up dramatically an action or event.
Track [F TV] To move the camera alongside a piece of action.
Trail/trailer [F R TV] An edited version of a film or programme designed to interest an audience in the text itself.
Transmission area [R] The part of the country to which a radio station broadcasts.
Transponder [R TV] An individual channel of communication from a satellite.
Travelogue [R TV] A programme about travel.
Treatment [F TV] A preliminary script showing how a film or programme might be put together.
Two shot/Establishing two shot [TV] A shot in which two people are shown in the frame together, often used as an Establishing shot at the opening of an interview or some dialogue.
Typography [P] 1. The design of lettering in printing. 2. The process of setting type.
Underground [F P] An alternative publication or film, which often attacks or ridicules the mainstream.
Unidirectional [F R TV] A microphone that picks up sound from the direction in which it is pointed.
Uses and gratifications approach [F M P R TV] The study of how people use media products and what they get out of them.
VCR [TV] Video cassette recorder.
VHS (Video home system) [TV] The standard system used for domestic video recording.
Viewfinder [F TV] The part of a camera in which the operator can see and frame an image.
Vision mixer [TV] Equipment for linking together two camera images on the screen.
Voice-over [F TV] Off-screen voice that usually tells the story, explains the action, or comments on it.
VOX pop [R TV] A collection of comments from members of the public.
Web site A publication on the Internet, named after the World Wide Web, which organizes the information.
Whip pan [F] A very fast movement of the camera along a horizontal plane.
Widescreen [F TV] An Aspect ratio in which the width of the image is much greater than its height.
Wildtrack [F R TV] A recording of background or atmospheric noise that can be used at the editing stage.
Wipe [F TV] An edit in which one image moves across the screen to replace another by apparently wiping it off.
Wire service [P R TV] A News agency that provides national and international news to a media organization.
Zoo format [R] A radio programme that includes other voices besides that of the presenter.
Zoom [F TV] 1. Device on a camera that allows movement towards or away from an image or piece of action. 2. A shot in which the camera zooms in from a Long shot to a Big close-up.